Monday, January 14, 2008

4 - physiology mcqs - 31 to 34

31) Stereocilia and kinocilium are present in

a. Tongue

b. Nose

c. Eye

d. Inner Ear

Answer : d) Inner Ear

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 175

32) Minimal amount of urine formed – obligatory volume of urine

a. 100 ml

b. 200 ml

c. 500 ml

d. 1000 ml

Answer : c) 500 ml

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 713

33) The substance that has the lowest renal clearance

a. Glucose

b. Urea

c. Albumin

d. Creatinine

Answer : a) Glucose

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 710

34) Difference between arterioles and capillaries

a. Thick walls in arterioles

b. Arterioles are innervated

c. Larger Lumen of Arterioles

d. All of the above

Answer : d) All of the above

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 579

3 - physiology mcqs - 21 to 30

21) Somatostatin is Secreted by

a. Alpha cells

b. Beta cells

c. D cells

d. None of the above

Answer : (c ) D Cells

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 333

22) Cholagogues Cause

a. contraction of Gall bladder

b. Increases in secretion of bile

c. Both

d. None

Answer : (A) Contract of Gall Bladder

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 503

Choleretics cause increase in secretion of bile

23) Partial Pressure of CO2 in atmospheric air

a. 760 mm Hg

b. 159 mm Hg

c. 0.3 mm Hg

d. 600 mm Hg

Answer : c) o.3 mm Hg

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 647

24) Right ventricular pressure in systole

a. 0 mm Hg

b. 25 mm Hg

c. 80 mm Hg

d. 120 mm Hg

Answer : b) 25 mm Hg

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 567

25) The amount of Blood volume in capillaries is

a. 1 %

b. 5 %

c. 10 %

d. 20 %

Answer : c) 5 %

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 590

26) Abnormal rhythm is produced by

a. SA Node

b. AV Node

c. Purkinje

d. ectopics

Answer : D) Ectopics

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 556

27) RMP of a nerve of is maintained by

a. Sodium channels

b. Chloride channels

c. Potassium channels

d. Calcium channels

Answer : c) Potaasium Channels

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 59

28) opening of which channel leads to Repolarisation of muscle

a. Calcium

b. Potassium

c. Sodium

d. Chloride

Answer : a) Calcium

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 71

29) Endogenous opiod receptors for Endorphin and enkephalin are present in all of the following thereby blunting the pain except

a. hypothalamus

b. large intestine

c. liver

d. Substantia gelatinosa rolando

Answer : c) Liver

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 113

30) Myosin is involved in

a. Muscle Contraction

b. Conduction of nerve impulse

c. Secretion of Insulin

d. None of the above

Answer : A) Muscle Contraction

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 65

2 - physiology mcqs - 11 to 20

Lesions of Right Parietal lobe present with all of the following phenomenons except

a. Ability to shave left side

b. Extinctions

c. Crowding number on Right side

d. Wide margins on left side while writing

Answers : Ability to shave left side

Reference: Harrison 16th Edition page 149

12) Characteristics of Lymph

a. It is a Tissue fluid.

b. Daily Circulation is 2 to 4 l

c. Protein content of the choroid plexus lymph is 0

d. All of the above

Answer : All of the above

Reference: Ganong 22nd edition page 546

13) Pressure of CSF is

a. 50 to 180 mm H2O

b. 50 to 180 mm Hg

c. 180 to 280 mm H2O

d. 180 to 280 mm Hg

Answer : 50 to 180 mm H2O

Reference: Harrison 16th Edition Page Appendix 11

14) Total blood volume in an adult who weighs 70 kilograms is

a. 2600 ml

b. 3600 ml

c. 4600 ml

d. 5600 ml

Answer : 5600 ml

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 2, 515

15) Cross bridges are formed by

a. Myosin

b. Troponin

c. Tropomyosin

d. None of the above

Answer : Myosin

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 67

16) Of the following which is the least Essential endocrine Gland

a. Parathyroid

b. Thyroid

c. Pancreas

d. Adrenal medulla

Answer : (D) Adrenal Medulla

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 356

17) Alpha 1, Alpha 2, Beta 1, and beta 2 receptors arepresent in

a. Eyes

b. Uterus

c. Lungs

d. Kidneys

Answers Kidneys

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 227, Table 13.2

18) QRS Width in ECG represents

a. Time required for a stimulus to spread through the ventricles

b. Ventricular depolarization

c. 0.1 second or less

d. All of the above

Answer : (d) all of the above

Reference : Goldberger 3rd Edition Page 14

19) Fasting Gastrin level

a. 50ng

b. 500 ng

c. 5000 ng

d. None of the above

Answer : (d) None of the above

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page

As per the blood levels of gastrin are Less than 100 pg/ml (picograms per milliliter) (that is equal to

20) Receptor of Growth Hormone is similar to receptor of

a. T3

b. IGF


d. Adrenaline

Answer : b) IGF

Reference: Ganong 22nd Edition Page 405

Sunday, January 13, 2008

1 - physiology mcqs - 1 to 10

1. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

(a) Is a 184 amino acid peptide hormone
(b) Acts on a cell surface receptor that increases intracellular cyclic AMP
(c) Increases calcium release from bone
(d) Increases production of 1,25 dihydroxy-vitamin D3 in the kidney
(e) Reduces calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract


b , c , d are true . PTH increases serum calcium by releasing calcium from bone and increasing gastrointestinal absorption. It increases the renal hydroxylation of Vitamin D3. It is an 84 amino acid peptide hormone with a half-life of several minutes.


2. Anti-diuretic diuretic hormone (ADH)

(a) Is produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
(b) Is released by neurosecretion
(c) Serum levels are increased by a low plasma osmolality
(d) Secretion is increased in the early post-operative period
(e) Acts by increasing the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule


only b and d are true . ADH is released by neurosecretion from the posterior pituitary gland. The cell bodies of the neurosecretory cells are found in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. ADH is release in response to an increase in plasma osmolality. It acts by increasing water reabsorption by the renal collecting ducts. Increased ADH is part of the stress response seen in the early post-operative period.


3. Regarding the sensory dermatomes

(a) C3 and C4 supply the tip of the shoulder
(b) L1 supplies the umbilicus
(c) L4 and L5 supply the sole of the foot
(d) Sacral nerves supply the perianal skin
(e) The facial nerve supplies the face


a , c , d are right . C3 and C4 supply both the shoulder tip and the diaphragm. Hence referral to the shoulder tip from diaphragmatic irritation. The umbilicus is supplied by T10 nerve roots. L1 supplies the inguinal region via the ileo-inguinal nerve. The S2-S4 supplies the perianal skin. The facial nerve supplies the nerves of facial expression. The sensory supply to the face is via the trigeminal nerve.


4. The sympathetic nervous system

(a) Produces pupillary dilatation
(b) Reduces gastrointestinal motility
(c) Constricts bronchiole smooth muscle
(d) Constricts skin and mucous membrane blood vessels
(e) Contracts the bladder detrusor muscle


a , b , d are true . The sympathetic nervous system produces the ' flight or fight' response. It dilates the pupil, reduces gastrointestinal motility and produces bronchodilatation. It diverts blood away from the skin by constricting blood vessels and relaxes the detrusor muscle of the bladder.


5. Cerebrospinal fluid

(a) Has a composition almost identical to that of the brain extracellular fluid
(b) Is produced by the choroid plexus
(c) Circulates from the subarachnoid space into the cerebral ventricles
(d) Is absorbed through the arachnoid villi
(e) Absorption is independent of intraventricular pressure


only c is wrong . Cerebrospinal fluid is produced by the choroid plexuses of the lateral and third ventricles. It circulates from the cerebral ventricles, throught the foramina of Magendie and Luschka of the fourth ventricle into the subarachnoid space. Absorption occurs by bulk flow, a pressure-dependant process, via the arachnoid villi into the venous sinuses.


6. Smooth muscle cells

(a) Microscopically have a striated appearance
(b) Do not possess actin and myosin
(c) Show spontaneous muscle contraction
(d) Adjacent cells are electrically coupled
(e) Are controlled by the autonomic nervous system


c , d , e are true . Unlike skeletal and cardiac muscle, smooth muscle cells do not have striated appearnce. They do however still contain both actin and myosin. Smooth muscle cells have intrinsic contractile properties the activity of which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system. Smooth muscle and cardiac muscle cells are electrically coupled.


7. Regarding pain sensation

(a) It arises by stimulation of free nerve endings
(b) Is transmitted to the central nervous system by myelinated A fibres
(c) Central transmission occurs via the spinothalamic tracts
(d) The thalamus is important in the perception of pain
(e) Can be reduced by local anaesthetics that reduce potassium influx into nerve fibres


b and e are false . The majority of pain sensation arises from the stimulation of free nerve endings. Pain sensation is transmitted to the CNS in small unmyelinated C fibres. It is then transmitted to the thalamus in the spinothalamic tracts. Local anaesthetics work by blocking sodium channels in nerve fibres.


8. Following a total gastrectomy

(a) Anaemia can occur due to iron deficiency
(b) Anaemia can occur due to B12 deficiency
(c) Protein digestion is significantly impaired
(d) Diarrhoea is a frequent complaint
(e) Fainting and collapse may occur after a meal


except c all are true . After total gastrectomy anaemia can occur due to both iron and B12 deficiency. Gastric acid is required for normal iron absorption. Intrinsic factor is required for B12 absorption. All patients should receive B12 injections every three months. Post gastrectomy diarrhoea is a common complaint. Dumping syndrome is the result of rapid transit of a hyperosmolar meal into the small intsetine. The osmotic load can produce hypovolaemia. Rapid glucose absorption and result in preciptoud insulin release and a reactive hypoglycaemia.


9. Haemorrhage in man

(a) Produces venoconstriction
(b) Produces widespread arteriolar dilatation
(c) Produces a fall in cardiac output
(d) Causes splenic contraction
(e) Increases aldosterone secretion


b and d are false . Haemorrhage produces both venous and arteriolar contraction. Cardiac output is intially reduced. Hypovolaemia increase aldosterone secretion. Renal reabsorption of sodium is increased and volume homeostasis is eventually achieved. Unlike carnivores, the human spleen does not act as a significant resevoir of red blood cells and does not contract in response to blood loss.


10. The prothrombin time

(a) Assesses the intrinsic pathway of the blood coagulation system
(b) Can be prolonged in jaundiced patients
(c) Is increased by warfarin
(d) Is increased by heparin
(e) Can be restored to normal by the administration of protamine


only b and c are true . The prothrombin time assess the extrinsic pathway of the blood coagulation cascade. In jaundiced patients the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including Vitamin K, is reduced. Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of clotting factors II, VII, IX and XI. Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonits. Heparin potentiates the activity of antithrombin III and has no effect on the external pathway or prothrombin time. Protamine neutralises the activity of heparin.



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